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An Intensive Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Carrollton Bypass, Highway 1660, Carroll County, Georgia

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This report presents the results of an intensive archaeological survey of the proposed highway bypass (Georgia Department of Transportation Project Number DPRF-021-1(6)) around Carrollton in Carroll County, Georgia. The investigations were conducted under a memorandum of' agreement between the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, West Georgia College. Several research goals directed and influenced the nature and scope of the field survey. First, the survey was conducted to provide data for a cultural resource assessment of the archaeological and historic sites within the proposed construction right of way. The assessment would provide the information necessary for making recommendations as to the eligibility or non-eligibility of sites for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Second, the data generated by the survey was to be utilized to gain insights into the general distribution of archaeological sites in the western Piedmont area. Relatively little is known of the prehistoric settlement pattern and it's chronological and ecological variations within this area. Third, the survey was conducted as a assessment of surface and sub-surface site detection techniques in order to determine which would be the most efficient for similar surveys in the future. The initial phase of the survey was an intensive visual inspection of the entire six mile long right of way. A total of forty-two locations containing prehistoric and/or historic. artifacts were encountered. A second phase consisted of conducting small shovel tests along the right of way in areas where grass, leaves or other ground cover obscured the surface. One additional location yielding prehistoric artifacts was encountered during this phase. The final phase of the field investigations consisted of the selection of ten prehistoric sites and one historic site which required more intensive investigations to determine their eligibility status for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Limited survey test units were conducted at the prehistoric sites in order to assess their stratification, artifact range, presence or absence of features and the relative degrees of disturbance by agriculture and other recent activities. As a result of these tests, it was determined that none of the investigated sites were eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Chapter I of this report contains the above introduction, a brief background of the available archaeological data and literature of the Carroll County area and a brief description of the local environment and the proposed highway project. Chapter II presents an explanation of the field and laboratory methodology including descriptions of the lithic categories used to classify the recovered artifacts. Chapter III contains the descriptions of the sites encountered during the survey and of the archaeological data that was recovered. Chapter IV includes the summary and interpretations of the survey data, recommendations for future survey techniques and a condensed cultural resource management statement for the Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Transportation. Craig T. Sheldon, Jr. as Principal Investigator was ultimately responsible for supervision of the entire survey and for preparation of the final report. James Dickey served as assistant during the field survey. Sharon Bolt was responsible for direct supervision of the laboratory analysis. John Pullen was responsible for drafting the illustrations. Acknowledgments are gratefully extended to Dr. Lewis H. Larson, Jr. and Thomas H. Eubanks for much needed advice, to Dean Richard Dangle for timely assistance in the preparation of the illustrations and most of all, to the eight students of West Georgia College who carried out their responsibilities so well during the frequently tedious and always hot eight weeks of the field investigations.