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A Preliminary Archaeological survey of Structure No. 80, Lower Little Tallapoosa River Watershed, Carroll County

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Review Comments On Final Survey Tests Sites 475, 474, 473, 472, 471. All of these sites were revisited and carefully checked for additional cultural material. Site 474, a large dome-shaped rock outcrop was the most imposing and appropriate comments are provided in the field diary which is appended. The outcrop is definitely natural and geological but the "mound" dominates the terrace and affords a commanding overlook to the nearby stream. Although no artifacts or cultural materials of any kind were found by either the WGC of the SCS field parties, the leafy mantle obscures much of the exposed rock. Although there is no evidence on which to recommend eligibility for nomination to the National Register, or mitigation, this reviewer does recommend that the imposing rock site be protected and that a photograph of the rocks be made for the record. A. R. Kelly and party visited the locale of Site 451 with Principal Investigator. Craig Sheldon who explained the additional survey work carried out on this house site by his student group. He advises that he considers no further work on the site is justified and will correspond with SCS to this effect. Sites 453, 458, 459, 464, 476. Five sites in the flood plain which parallels Juniper Creek beginning with the locale of site 451 were the subject of extensive in depth testing with a backhoe, an operational procedure favored by both A. R. Kelly and the Principal Investigator. A primary terrace and eroded ridge slope parallels the flood plain which varies in width in this traverse of the east stream margin from 75 to 150 feet. In their survey report WGC' recorded finding surface collections from the flood plain, especially in one large corn field. Sites 464, 476, 458 (with two backhoe tests), 453, and 459 received 2 x 8 foot tests with the backhoe to natural geological base or the water table. The interesting result of these flood plain tests was the uncovering of the original terrain surface at the time when pioneer farming operati4ps began around the mid-nineteenth century. The test trench profiles clearly indicated the disturbed upper soil zone with reddish sandy loam attributed to alluviation following upon removal of the vegetative cover of the* nearby ridge. The old field zone appeared as a grey or tan partially leached buried humus stained layer sone 14 inches below the present surface on the average. Below that occurred varied-colored sandy to clay loams culminating in lighter colored clay loam which appeared to be of saprolitic origin. The individual site notes and descriptions of the field tests on 3/24-25-26 are appended. West Georgia College and University of Georgia archeologists as well as Soil Conservation Service have a mutual concern with pilot studies to perfect flood plain site testing to determine in depth buried sites and concentrations of archeological material still in good archeological context despite extensive modern erosion and truncation from cultivation. At the Little Tallapoosa Structure 80 waters had and at the Chattooga Watershed in particular the backhoe has been demonstrated to be a mobile accurate test producing clean profiles revealing all critical soil zones, logged in situ for both archeological and geological features. In the flood plain test at Tallapoosa successive sites along the traverse for a quarter of a mile upstream demonstrate clearly that the surface collections, all of lithic character, were derived from the nearby primary terrace and eroded hill slopes, subsequently redistributed in 75 or more years,of modern cultivation. The buried profile recordations revealed old plow scars and field clearing operations which probably were the source of some scattered charcoal fragments. No evidences of a buried aboriginal occupation or chipping station in situ were found.